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Vitamins are feeding substances that are in very small quantities be found in our feeding and indispensable for the good functioning of the body. The most cannot make the body himself. At intensive sporting the need for vitamins of  B complex and C is larger. For each extra 1000 kcal carbohydrates 0.5 milligrams vitamin B1 and 0.7 milligrams B2. By 100 grams extra proteins: 200 milligrams vitamin C.
Below the different vitamins are described. Too much (much too much) can the functioning of another one a vitamin (strongly) diminish.
In fat-soluble are: A, D, E and K. Te much are stored in the liver.
In water soluble: B-complex and C. Redundant quantities are disappearing with the urine.

Vitamin A (retinol) and carotene

Vitamin B complex

B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B12


Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K



Vitamin A (retinol) and carotene 
Is found in: liver tear, liver, butter and spinach.

Is indispensable for the face capacity. It is necessary for a good condition of the skin, mucous membranes and our defence system. For this reason shortages can (night)
blindness, dry eyes, lighted mucous membranes, dry skin and corn cause.

Recommended quantity per day: vitamin A: 0.45 milligrams and caroteen: 2.4 milligrams. Provitamin caroteen is converted for 1/6 parts into vitamin a therefore in sum: 0.85 milligrams.

More necessary at: bright light (winter sport) and smoke.

Too much: does not occur fast.


Vitamin B complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B12) 
It is for sportsmen and sportswomen important to get enough vitamins of B-complex. Vitamin B complex is important for the combustion of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and the hormone functioning and for our nervous system. Vitamin B ensures complete exploiting energy that is released at the combustion of carbohydrates: at each extra 1000 kcal carbohydrates must taken 0.5 milligrams B1 and 0.7 milligrams B2.
Lack can lead to complaints: fast fatigue, muscle weakness, excitability, concentration lack, sleep problems, skin problems, flatulence- and bowel complaints, anaemia and the convalescence after physical effort is less rapidly. It is important for sportsmen and sportswomen that the prerecording of B vitamins is optimum, because is energy production (= sporting), proteins metabolism (= muscle advancement and - convalescence) and hormones must go well.
Because a large take in of one of the B vitamins can give a relative shortage of the other B vitamin, it is advisable these take vitamins as a vitamin B-complex.

More necessary at: sports, much use sugars, alcohol and stress.

Prevention of: stress, skin sicknesses.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) 
Is found in: beer- and baker leaven, whole-wheat bread.

Necessary at the combustion of carbohydrates and proteins (if carbohydrates have been consumed).

Recommended quantity per day:
1.5 milligrams.
Sportsmen and sportswomen: 5-10 milligrams. this quantity depends on the use on carbohydrates, proteins and alcohol.
Shortage: metabolism does not complete. Consequence: lack of appetite, concentration lack. Lack occurs at sportsmen and sportswomen regularly.

Construction and keeps has considerably what influence.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 
Is found in: beer- and baker leaven and liver.

Also necessary for the combustion of carbohydrates and proteins. Also it has been involved in the maintenance of fabrics and mucous membranes.

Recommended quantity per day: the need has been coupled to the energy usage 0.44 milligrams by 1000 kcal.
Therefore 2 à 2.5 milligrams is certainly sufficient.

Shortage: skin problems at mouth and nose. Also tremble, giddiness and sleep impairments.

Construction and keeps has considerably what influence.

Vitamin B3 (nicotinamide) 
Also important for sportsmen and sportswomen: for the combustion processes in the cells.

Recommended quantity per day: the need has been coupled to the energy usage: minimum 7  milligrams by 1000 kcal. Shortage does not occur fast.

Shortage: skin deviations, flatulence - and bowel impairments and disorder feelings.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) 

Plays a role in the production of the adrenal hormones and helps to convert fats, carbohydrates and proteins into energy. For this reason B5 is very important also for sportsmen and sportswomen.

Recommended quantity per day: 10 milligrams.

Shortages can be also the cause of: fatigue, sleep impairments, depressions, flatulence- and bowel complaints and lack appetite.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 
Is found in: leaven, liver, whole-wheat bread and flesh.

Necessary for all processes of the proteins metabolism. It is also important for the intake of vitamin B12. Furthermore also at the production of the hormones, blood cells and energy.

Recommended quantity per day: 2  milligrams (more if the intake proteins of  is larger).

Lack relatively frequently occurs, certainly at sportsmen and sportswomen. Leading to the characteristic vitamin B lacks: skin - and mucous membrane deviations, particularly to the nose, eyes and mouth, with gaps in lips and tongue, and to depressions, migraine, excitability, giddiness and anaemia.

Vitamin B12 (yanocobalamin) 
Is found in: animal foodstuffs such as: flesh, fish, milk and milk products and eggs.

As a coenzyme it has been involved in the production of  DNA, the production of nerve fibres, and normal red blood cells. B12 is necessary for a good functioning of foliumzuur.

Recommended quantity per day: 1 micrograms.

hortages lead to: anaemia, demolition of nerve fabrics, depressions, fatigue and a painful tongue.

Biotine (or vitamin H) 
Is found in: liver, flesh and eggs. Also in leaven, pod fruit, and oleaginous seeds.

As a coenzyme it has been involved in the production of energy, and the shaping of a healthy skin, its, nails and nerves.

Recommended quantity per day: probable 10 micrograms.

The bowel flora makes a large quantity biotine as a result of which it is not confessed how much necessary is.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 
Is found in: parsley, oranges, lemons, strawberries, grapefruit, pineapple, spinach, flower cabbage, broccoli and sprout.
To a lesser degree: tomatoes, chicory and asparagus. In very small degree: grapes, root, pears apples.

Vitamin C is important vitamin, plays a distinguished role at many body processes and iron transport. Is essential for the of metabolism amino acids and the prerecording of iron. Moreover the general condition and capacitance against infecties improve.

Recommended quantity per day: 100 milligrams per day. For sportsmen and sportswomen quantities of 300-1000 milligrams per day are even recommended.

Shortages cause bleeding and lighted cog flesh, haemorrhage in skin, eyes and nose, bad wound cicatrisation, sensitivity for infection, anaemia(as a result fatigue), weakness, muscle- and joint pains.

Surplus: with urine it is stopped if the maximum reserve of 10 to12 milligrams has been reached by liter blood. Adults have approximately five liter blood (1/13 of the body weight).

Construction and keep has much influence on quality .

Vitamin D (ergosterol) 
The prerecording of calcium and phosphate.

Is found in: margarine, eggs, fat fish and by our skin is made by sunlight (especially spring).

Recommended quantity per day: 5 micrograms.

lead at children to a reduced calcification and the bones. At adults step on pains in bones, fragile bones and muscle weakness.

Vitamin E (tokoferol) 
Is found in: sprout, eggs and margarine.

Is a power antioxidant. Protects muscles, heart and blood barrels against damage by aggressive radicals. Also it helps  to keep the red blood cells longer intact and raises with that endurance. The skin helps against old age phenomena.

Recommended quantity per day: 10-15 milligrams (sportsmen and sportswomen need  more).

Shortage: the muscle cells can insufficiently function. Lack can also lead to sleep impairments, lack of vitality, concentration lack and muscle weakness.

Vitamin K 
Is important for the clotting of blood. Vitamin K sufficiently in our feeding.

Recommended quantity per day: minimum 100 micrograms.

Shortage: slowed down blood clotting.




Recommended quantity for endurance sportsmen and sportswomen per day

A Eyes, skin, hair, defence system. 0.85 milligrams
B1 Carbohydrate combustion. 5-10 milligrams
B2 Skin, hairs and carbohydrate combustion. 2-2.5 milligrams
B3  Nerve fabrics and carbohydrate combustion. 28 milligrams
B5 Carbohydrate- and fatcombustion. 10 milligrams
B6 Proteins metabolism. 2 milligrams
B12 Red blood cells and nerve fibres. 1 micrograms
C Many processes, wound cicatrisation, capacitance and prerecording iron. 200 milligrams
D Prerecording calcium feeding, buds out and skeleton. 5 micrograms
E Protection muscles, heart, blood barrels and red blood cells. 10-15 milligrams
K Blood clotting. 100 micrograms
· At normal activities and ordinary varied feeding the chance on vitamin shortage is not large. At sportsmen and sportswomen the energy use is larger than normal. Because of this the need for vitamins also increases. Especially the need for vitamins of  complex B and C larger. That chance at sportsmen and sportswomen on a shortage is larger, because the larger energy usage is frequently covered by empty calories such as sweet, bands and cola.
· Who drinks much coffee must ensure more vitamin B.
· Stress cost to many vitamins (especially C).
· By to cook, steam and roast goes approximately 40 up to 60 per cent of the present vitamin in food lost.
· Vitamin shortage will be just noticeable after some time.
· To much vitamins just as evil as a shortage.
· At a vitamin B1, and B2 and B6 and C shortage decrease the maximum performance capacity and duration performance. Extra vitamin supplements above the correct quantities have however no impact.
· It is dissuaded for example but one vitamin in a high amount, use because they’re relative shortages of another one a vitamin can arise.



Start: February 2005 Last modified: 29 August 2020